Basic Mathematics for Everyone
This is a complementary page where we endeavour to provide some mathematics and problem solving tips and tricks. The questions deal with standard aptitude test describing methods such as efficiency method, total effort method, mathematical induction and so on.
Product of integers with N and M digits
N = 2, M = 3: 10 * 100 = 1000, D = 4 = [N + M - 1]
N = 2, M = 3: 99 * 100 = 9900, D = 4 = [N + M - 1]
N = 2, M = 3: 10 * 999 = 9990, D = 4 = [N + M - 1]
N = 2, M = 3: 99 * 999 = 98901, D = 5 = [N + M]
N = 2, M = 4: 10 * 1000 = 10000, D = 5 = [N + M - 1]
N = 2, M = 4: 99 * 1000 = 99000, D = 5 = [N + M - 1]
N = 2, M = 4: 10 * 9999 = 99990, D = 5 = [N + M - 1]
N = 2, M = 4: 99 * 9999 = 989901, D = 6 = [N + M]
Thus: the answer is [N + M - 1] and [N + M].
a2 = (a + b)*(a - b) + b2. For example:
43 * 43 = (43+3)*(43-3) + (3*3) = (46*40)+9 = 1849.
A great improvisation of this formula as per Vedic mathematics is as follows: "Whatever the extent of its difficiency, lessen it still further to that very extent; and also set-up the square of that deficiency". The calculations steps are then defined as:
34 = 81
35 = 243
36 = 729
37 = 2187
38 = 6561
3n = 1 if remainder(n/4) = 0
= 3 if remainder(n/4) = 1
= 9 if remainder(n/4) = 2
= 7 if remainder(n/4) = 3
Similarly, last digit of 4n is 6 is n is an even number and 4 if n is an odd number.
Similarly, last digit of 7n
7n = 1 if remainder(n/4) = 0
= 7 if remainder(n/4) = 1
= 9 if remainder(n/4) = 2
= 3 if remainder(n/4) = 3
E.g. tens place of 3157. The unit place would be 1. The tens place would be 3 * 7 = 21 and hence 1 will be at tens place. The number is calculated at product of digit at tens place in the base that is '3' here and the first digit (at units place) in the exponent which is '7' here.
So far easy for exponents. How to find digit at tens place in multiplication of 3 or 4 digits? Refer to the method below for product 24 × 37 × 68 × 94.
If A does the task in 20 days and B does it in 16 days. How long will they take it to complete the task together?
Efficiency Method A's efficiency = 100/20 = 5%, B's efficiency = 100/16 = 6.25%, (A+B)'s efficiency = 5+6.25 = 11.25 %. Thus: Time required = 100/11.25 = 8.89 days
Another variant of such problem is given as:
If a group-A of 4 persons each of equal efficiency can do a task in 12 days. How many day would be required to do the same task by group-B of 6 persons with efficiency 2 times that of group-A?
Equality of total effort Let x be the efficiency of persons in group A. Total effort required = 4 * x * 12 = 48x [mandays]. This is constant for that particular task.
Now, let N be the number of days required for persons in group-B to complete the task. Thus: N * 2x * 6 = 48x. Hence, N = 4 days.
There are two containers having equal volume of A and B. Now, amount x of liquid A from container is taken out and mixed with liquid B. Thereafter, same volume x is taken out from second container and mixed with liquid A. Question is: which of the containers have higher impurity? In other words, is the volume fraction of B in A in the first container is higher, lower or same as volume fraction of A in B in the second container?
Answer: The volume fraction of B in A in container 1 = volume fraction of A in B in container 2. Before the answer is demonstrated through complex calculation, the easiest way to get to the answer is by noticing the variable 'x'. It can be between 0 to 100. Hence, assume the case when x = 100 and the answer is straightforward.
What is the shortest path between two diagonally opposite vertices of a cube when the travel path has to be all along the walls, ground and ceiling of the cube? Two such set of vertices have been shown by circles and diamonds in the following figure.
Other than the trivial examples of 0 and 1, the only natural numbers that equal the sum of the cubes of their digits are 153, 370, 371, and 407.
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